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諾基亞裁員 芬蘭高科技人才試圖軟著陸

Kimmo Kalliola knows the feeling that thousands of Finns have been dealing with over the last couple of years. He spent more than a decade working at Nokia, but the Finnish tech giant hit hard times. In late 2012, Mr. Kalliola and 10,000 others at the company were laid off.
過去這幾年成千上萬芬蘭人做何感想,基摩.蓋里歐拉知道。他在諾基亞服務了十多年,但這家芬蘭科技巨擘陷入困境。2012年年尾,該公司解聘1萬人,蓋里歐拉是其中之一。
“I remember those sleepless nights,” said Mr. Kalliola, 42, who holds a Ph.D. in radio engineering. Troubles at Nokia, once a source of national pride for Finns, have hardly slowed.
「我記得那些輾轉難眠的夜晚,」42歲的蓋里歐拉說。他擁有無線電工程博士學位。曾是芬蘭之光的諾基亞,麻煩並未減少。
Last year, the company sold its once-dominant mobile phone business to Microsoft. Within three months, Microsoft announced 18,000 layoffs, many of them in Finland. Further job cuts are now underway; Microsoft said it would reduce its Finnish work force by up to 2,300 employees, or roughly two-thirds of its local work force.
去年,公司將曾經叱吒風雲的行動電話業務賣給微軟。不到三個月,微軟就宣布裁員1.8萬人,許多落在芬蘭。裁員仍在繼續中,微軟表示,最多會削減2300名芬蘭員工,相當於芬蘭員工總數的三分之二。
This fast influx of unemployed tech workers into the Finnish economy has left policy makers with a headache.
科技業員工大量失業,讓芬蘭經濟政策制定者很頭疼。
Governments worldwide are angling to train and attract more highly skilled developers and engineers. Yet Finland has a surplus of these workers.
各國政府都積極培養吸引更多擁有高等技術的開發者和工程師,芬蘭卻有高科技人才過剩的問題。

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圖片來源/Kārlis Dambrāns(CC BY-SA 2.0)
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Some may be struggling to find a good job, but many have already started their own businesses or have been recruited by tech companies moving to Finland. Mr. Kalliola, for example, started Quuppa, a company that provides precise indoor geolocation positioning.
在芬蘭,一些技術人員可能很難找到好工作,但很多人已經開始創業,或者受聘於到芬蘭設點的外國科技公司。例如,蓋里歐拉就創立了Quuppa公司,提供精確的室內地理位置定位技術。
In part, the relatively soft landing among workers is a result of efforts by the Finnish government. Just as Nokia began layoffs, politicians started providing grants and training to help laid-off workers start their own companies.
技術人員這種相對的軟著陸,部分得歸功於芬蘭政府的努力。諾基亞一開始裁員,芬蘭政界就開始提供補貼和培訓計畫,協助遭解雇的員工創業。
Finnish politicians have also forced Nokia – and are putting pressure on Microsoft – to support former employees’ re-entry into the labor market. The help includes grants for new business ventures and allowing former employees to use intellectual property, like unwanted patents, almost free of charge.
芬蘭政界也迫使諾基亞協助前員工重返勞動市場,現在則是對微軟施壓。這些協助包括提供新創企業補助,以及同意前員工使用某些智慧財產產權,比如公司的多餘專利,幾乎是無償使用。
Because of these efforts, the unemployment rate for tech workers is several percentage points lower than Finland’s current 10 percent unemployment rate.
因為有這些努力,科技業員工的失業率,比芬蘭整體失業率10%要低好幾個百分點。
Several of the Finnish cities most affected by the big job cuts have pushed to attract other tech companies, using the available local tech talent as a major selling point. ARM Holdings, the British designer of digital products, and MediaTek, the Taiwanese semiconductor company, have recently set up research and development facilities in Oulu – in the far north of Finland – hiring teams of former Nokia engineers.
受大規模裁員影響最嚴重的幾個芬蘭城市,把當地現有的科技人才當做主要賣點,努力吸引其他科技業者前往。最近,英國數位商品設計公司ARM和台灣半導體業者聯發科,雙雙在芬蘭極北的奧盧設立研發基地,聘僱曾為諾基亞效力的工程師團隊。
“If you need to find a complete development team, then there are probably people in Oulu who can do that for you,” said Juha Ala-Mursula, director of economic development for the city.
「如果需要找一個完整的開發團隊,奧盧這裡大概就有人能幫你辦到,」奧盧市經濟發展處長尤哈.阿拉-穆爾蘇拉說。
Others say former Nokia workers struggle with the fewer available resources after leaving a large company.
另有些人則表示,離開大型企業後,諾基亞前員工難以適應可用資源較少的情況。
Antti Saarnio, chairman of Jolla – a Finnish company that is developing a former Nokia mobile phone operating system – says he has to rein in his developers (mostly former Nokia employees) in Helsinki when they ask for things beyond the realms of what is available at a start-up. “Nokia wasn’t a school for entrepreneurship,” he said. “Most people have a lot to learn.”
芬蘭公司Jolla正在開發一個曾屬於諾基亞的行動電話作業系統,董事長安蒂.薩爾尼奧表示,當負責開發的員工(絕大多數是諾基亞的前員工)提出的要求,超出新創公司能提供的的範圍時,他就得踩煞車。他說:「諾基亞不是培養創業者的學校,大部分人有很多東西需要學習。」
Yet for Pekka Väyrynen, who after leaving Nokia co-founded an industrial design company that makes mobile devices, the chance to take control of his career outweighed any perks offered in his former corporate position.
但是對佩卡.維盧能來說,有機會掌控自己的事業,強過以前在諾基亞享受的任何福利。離開諾基亞後,與人合創一家生產行動裝置的工業設計公司。
“In the final days at Nokia, it took so long to make any decision,” said Mr. Väyrynen, 54, whose company, Creoir, recently helped design a smartphone for Marshall, the renowned amplifier manufacturer. “We’re now making our own choices. It’s exciting.”
「在諾基亞的最後階段,做任何決定都要花很長時間,」54歲的維盧能說。他的公司叫Creoir,最近剛幫著名的擴大機生產商Marshall設計一款智慧型手機。「我們現在自己當家作主,令人興奮。」

日期: 4/9/2015
來源:聯合新聞網

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