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諾基亞裁員 芬蘭高科技人才試圖軟著陸

Kimmo Kalliola knows the feeling that thousands of Finns have been dealing with over the last couple of years. He spent more than a decade working at Nokia, but the Finnish tech giant hit hard times. In late 2012, Mr. Kalliola and 10,000 others at the company were laid off.
“I remember those sleepless nights,” said Mr. Kalliola, 42, who holds a Ph.D. in radio engineering. Troubles at Nokia, once a source of national pride for Finns, have hardly slowed.
Last year, the company sold its once-dominant mobile phone business to Microsoft. Within three months, Microsoft announced 18,000 layoffs, many of them in Finland. Further job cuts are now underway; Microsoft said it would reduce its Finnish work force by up to 2,300 employees, or roughly two-thirds of its local work force.
This fast influx of unemployed tech workers into the Finnish economy has left policy makers with a headache.
Governments worldwide are angling to train and attract more highly skilled developers and engineers. Yet Finland has a surplus of these workers.

圖片來源/Kārlis Dambrāns(CC BY-SA 2.0)

Some may be struggling to find a good job, but many have already started their own businesses or have been recruited by tech companies moving to Finland. Mr. Kalliola, for example, started Quuppa, a company that provides precise indoor geolocation positioning.
In part, the relatively soft landing among workers is a result of efforts by the Finnish government. Just as Nokia began layoffs, politicians started providing grants and training to help laid-off workers start their own companies.
Finnish politicians have also forced Nokia – and are putting pressure on Microsoft – to support former employees’ re-entry into the labor market. The help includes grants for new business ventures and allowing former employees to use intellectual property, like unwanted patents, almost free of charge.
Because of these efforts, the unemployment rate for tech workers is several percentage points lower than Finland’s current 10 percent unemployment rate.
Several of the Finnish cities most affected by the big job cuts have pushed to attract other tech companies, using the available local tech talent as a major selling point. ARM Holdings, the British designer of digital products, and MediaTek, the Taiwanese semiconductor company, have recently set up research and development facilities in Oulu – in the far north of Finland – hiring teams of former Nokia engineers.
“If you need to find a complete development team, then there are probably people in Oulu who can do that for you,” said Juha Ala-Mursula, director of economic development for the city.
Others say former Nokia workers struggle with the fewer available resources after leaving a large company.
Antti Saarnio, chairman of Jolla – a Finnish company that is developing a former Nokia mobile phone operating system – says he has to rein in his developers (mostly former Nokia employees) in Helsinki when they ask for things beyond the realms of what is available at a start-up. “Nokia wasn’t a school for entrepreneurship,” he said. “Most people have a lot to learn.”
Yet for Pekka Väyrynen, who after leaving Nokia co-founded an industrial design company that makes mobile devices, the chance to take control of his career outweighed any perks offered in his former corporate position.
“In the final days at Nokia, it took so long to make any decision,” said Mr. Väyrynen, 54, whose company, Creoir, recently helped design a smartphone for Marshall, the renowned amplifier manufacturer. “We’re now making our own choices. It’s exciting.”

日期: 4/9/2015

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